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澳门赌场人民币_逐字逐句分析 特朗普签贸易战备忘录时说了啥(全译)
2020-01-11 18:24:01
[摘要] 今天贸易战的话题特别火。在得出贸易战已经开始的结论之前,我们应当还原一下昨晚在白宫到底发生了什么。我从白宫首页上下载了昨晚特朗普在签署行政备忘录之前的演讲全文,做了一些评论,分享给大家。But we have one particular problem. And I view them as afriend; I have tremendous respect for President Xi.

澳门赌场人民币_逐字逐句分析 特朗普签贸易战备忘录时说了啥(全译)

澳门赌场人民币,今天贸易战的话题特别火。

感觉自从有了朋友圈之后,大家都变成了全球问题专家。

但转来转去的文章都是“贸易战开打”、“中国反击”这样媒体不嫌事大的标题。

在得出贸易战已经开始的结论之前,我们应当还原一下昨晚在白宫到底发生了什么。

我从白宫首页上下载了昨晚特朗普在签署行政备忘录之前的演讲全文,做了一些评论,分享给大家。

大家可以去白宫网站上看原文。注:以下全文翻译为财经加入,括号内的文字均为原文的分析和点评。

Diplomatic Room  外交厅

12:45 P.M. EDT  美国东部时间中午12:45

THE PRESIDENT:  Well, thank you everybody. This has been long in the making.  You’ve heard many, many speeches by me and talks by me, and interviews where I talk about unfair trade practices.  We’ve lost, over a fairly short period of time, 60000 factories in our country — closed, shuttered, gone. Six million jobs, at least, gone. And now they’re starting to come back. You see what’s happening with Chrysler,with Foxconn, with so many other companies wanting to come back into the United States.

(特朗普专门提到了富士康Foxconn,应该指的是去年下半年传出富士康会在威斯康星投资一百亿美元建LCD液晶屏厂的新闻。然而富士康还要登陆A股呢,一个是要它投资,一个是帮它融资,你说它会向着谁?)

译:谢谢大家。这事已经很长时间了。你听过很多很多的演讲和我的谈话,还有我谈论不公平交易行为的采访。我们在相当短的时间内失去了在我们国家的6万家工厂 - 关闭,废弃,不见了。至少有600万个工作机会没有了。现在它们开始回来了。你会看到克莱斯勒和富士康发生了什么,还有很多其他公司希望回到美国。

But we have one particular problem. And I view them as afriend; I have tremendous respect for President Xi. We have a great relationship. They’re helping us a lot in North Korea. And that’s China.

(特朗普提到在朝 鲜事件上中国帮助了美国很多,之前所谓美国绕开中国和朝 鲜接触的说法应该是不成立的)

译:但是我们有一个特别问题。我把他们视为朋友;我非常尊重习近平主席。我们有很好的关系。他们在朝鲜帮助我们很多。

But we have a trade deficit,depending on the way you calculate,of $504 billion. Now, some people would say it’s really $375billion. Many different ways of looking at it, but any way you look at it, it is the largest deficit of any country in the history of our world. It’s out of control.

译:但我们的贸易赤字为5040亿美元,具体取决于您计算的方式,现在有些人会说这其实是3750亿美元。有许多不同的方式来看待它,但从任何角度来看,它都是我们世界历史上任何国家的最大赤字。它失控了。

We have a tremendous intellectual property theft situation going on, which likewise is hundreds of billions of dollars. And that’s on a yearly basis.  I’ve spoken to the President.  I’ve spoken to representatives of China. We’ve been dealing with it very seriously.

(从贸易逆差说到知识产权问题,后面特别提到和中国领导人和代表都有沟通,双方都在非常认真地对待此事。注意,这是第一次提到双方在沟通。)

译:我们身边有一个巨大的知识产权盗窃案正在进行,同样也是数千亿美元。这还是每年一次的统计。我已经和中国的领导人,中国的代表谈过了。我们非常认真地对待它。

As you know, we’re renegotiating NAFTA. We’ll see how that turns out.  Many countries are calling to negotiate better trade deals because they don’t want to have to pay the steel and aluminum tariffs. And we are negotiating with various countries — Mr. Lighthizer, Mr. Ross.

(印证了之前对钢铁和铝产品征税只是声东击西,先给一鞭子再豁免,为的是稳住其他贸易伙伴,再集中力量对付中国。川普这招666)

译:如你们所知,我们正在重新谈判北美自由贸易协定。我们将看到结果如何。许多国家呼吁谈判更好的贸易协议,因为他们不想支付钢铁和铝关税。我们正在与各国进行谈判,我们的代表是莱特希泽先生(美国贸易代表),罗斯先生(美国商务部长)。

We are just starting a negotiation with the European Union because they’ve really shut out our country to a large extent. They have barriers that — they can trade with us but we can’t trade with them. They’re very strong barriers. They have very high tariffs.  We don’t.  It’s just not fair.

译:我们刚刚开始与欧盟进行谈判,因为它们在很大程度上确实把我们的国家拒之门外。他们设立了障碍 - 他们可以与我们交易,但我们不能与他们交易。这些是非常强大的障碍。他们有很高的关税。我们没有。这不公平。

NAFTA has been a very bad deal for the United States, but we’ll make it better or we’ll have to do something else.The deal we have with South Korea is a very one-sided deal.  It’s a deal that has to be changed.

(背景补充:特朗普刚签署了对韩国的贸易关税豁免。)

译:北美自由贸易协定对美国来说是一个非常糟糕的交易,但我们会让它变得更好,否则我们将不得不做其他事情。我们与韩国达成的协议是一项非常片面的协议。这是一个必须改变的交易。

So we have a lot of things happening. But in particular,with China, we’re going to be doing a Section 301 trade action. It could be about $60 billion but that’s really just a fraction of what we’re talking about.

(600亿美元这个数字第一次出现,特朗普表示这还只是个开始。大部分媒体那些扎眼的标题都是从这里出来的。)

译:所以我们会让很多事情发生。特别是对中国,我们将要进行301条款贸易行动。这可能是约600亿美元,但这只是我们所谈论问题的一小部分。

I’ve been speaking with the highest Chinese representatives,including the President, and I’ve asked them to reduce the trade deficit immediately by $100 billion.  It’s a lot.  So that would be anywhere from 25 percent, depending on the way you figure, to maybe something even more than that.  But we have to do that.

(第二次提到和中国的沟通,包括领导人和代表。)

译:我一直在和包括习主席在内的中国最高代表进行会谈,我已要求他们立即减少1000亿美元的贸易赤字。这很多。因此,这可能会从25%的缩减开始,具体取决于你的计算方式,甚至可能比这更多。但我们必须这样做。

The word that I want to use is “reciprocal.” When they charge 25 percent for a car to go in, and we charge 2 percent for their car to come into the United States, that’s not good.  That’s how China rebuilt itself.  The tremendous money that we’ve paid since the founding of the World Trade Organization — which has actually been a disaster for us. It’s been very unfair to us.The arbitrations are very unfair. The judging has been very unfair. And knowingly, we always have a minority and it’s not fair.

(Reciprocal是互惠的意思,这个词后面还会反复出现。特朗普直指中国进口汽车的高关税,不过就算美国对中国进口汽车只征收2%的税,进口量有多少?)

译:我想用的这个词是“互惠”。当他们收取25%的汽车进口税时,我们收取2%的汽车进口税,这并不好。中国就是这样重振自己的。我们自世界贸易组织创立以来付出了巨大财富 - 实际上这对我们来说是一场灾难。这对我们非常不公平。仲裁非常不公平。评判非常不公平。而且很明显,我们总是少数,这是不公平的。

So we’re talking to World Trade, we’re talking to NAFTA,we’retalking to China, we’re talking to the European Union. And I will say,every single one of them wants to negotiate. And I believe that, in many cases — maybe all cases — we’ll end up negotiating a deal.

(每一次的沟通,不管是和NAFTA,中国,还是欧洲,最后都会协商一个deal!划重点!协商一个deal才是最终目的!

译:所以我们正在与WTO谈判,我们正在就北美自由贸易协定谈判,我们正在与中国谈判,我们正在与欧盟谈判。我会说,他们每一个人都想谈判。我相信,在很多情况下 - 也许是所有情况 - 我们最终都会谈判达成协议。

So we’ve spoken to China and we’re in the midst of a very large negotiation. We’ll see where it takes us. But in the meantime, we are sending a Section 301 action. I’ll be signing it right here, rightnow.  I’d like to ask Bob Lighthizer to say a few words about the 301 and where we are in that negotiation.

(重点来了!特朗普明确表示,正在和中国方面沟通,正在进行一个大型谈判!所以现在动用301,只是为了给谈判中加些砝码!

我们已经和中国谈过了,我们正在进行一场非常大的谈判。我们会看到我们需要的进展。但与此同时,我们正在发起301条款行动。我现在就在这里签名。我会让莱特希泽(贸易代表)简单诉说301条款,以及谈判的进度。

And we’re doing things for this country that should have been done for many, many years.  We’ve had this abuse by many other countries and groups of countries that were put together in order to take advantage of the United States, and we don’t want that to happen. We’re not going to let that happen. It’s probably one of the reasons I was elected; maybe one of the main reasons. But we’re not going to let that happen.

(废话连篇)

译:我们正在为这个国家做些许多年来应该做的事情。我们遭遇了许多其他国家和国家集团的这种滥权,这些国家和国家集团为了利用美国而聚集在一起,我们不希望这种情况发生。我们不会让这种情况发生。这可能是我当选的原因之一;也许是其中一个主要的原因。我们不会让这种情况发生。

We have, right now, an $800 billion trade deficit with the world. So think of that.  So let’s say we have 500 to 375, but let’s say we have 500 with China, but we have 800 total with the world. That would mean that China is more than half. So we’re going to get it taken care of.  And, frankly, it’s going to make us a much stronger, much richer nation.

(美国贸易逆差一般是对中国的,这是事实,但减少逆差就能让美国更强大更富有,哥们你确定吗?如果没有中国制造的诸多商品,你确定美国人民能过上更好的日子?)

译:目前,我们与世界其他部分有8000亿美元的贸易赤字。所以想想。假设我们只有3750亿至5000亿美元的赤字。我们与中国有5000亿的赤字,我们与全世界的赤字是8000亿。这意味着中国在其中超过一半。所以我们要关注这点。坦率地说,减少赤字将使我们成为一个更强大,更富有的国家。

The word is “reciprocal.  That’s the word I want everyone to remember.  We want reciprocal — mirror. Some people call it a mirror tariff or a mirror tax. Just use the word reciprocal.  If they charge us, we charge them the same thing.  That’s the way it’s got to be. That’s not the way it is.  For many, many years — for many decades, it has not been that way.

(可能是觉得Reciprocal这个词太复杂了,不符合他的用词习惯,此处还用了一个根本不是同义词的mirror。)

译:这个关键词是“互惠”。这是我想让所有人都记住的词。我们想要互惠 - 像镜子一样是相互的。有人称之为镜像关税或镜像税。只要使用“互惠”这个词,如果他们向我们收费,我们会向他们收取同样的费用。这就是相互对等的方式。事实并非如此。许多年来 - 几十年来,情况并非如此。

And I will say, the people we’re negotiating with — smilingly,they really agree with us.  I really believe they cannot believe they’ve gotten away with this for so long.

(再次强调,美国在和各路人等谈判协商。)

译:我会说,我们正在与之谈判的人 - 微笑着,他们真的同意我们。我真的相信,他们都无法相信他们已经远离互惠这么久了。

I’ll talk to Prime Minister Abe of Japan and others — great guy,friend of mine — and there will be a little smile on their face.  And the smile is, “I can’t believe we’ve been able to take advantage of the United States for so long.” So those days are over.

(很怀疑安倍的笑容会是在说,啊没想到我们可以占美国这么久的便宜……他的笑容更可能会是幸灾乐祸吧——啊当年美日贸易战我们被搞得那么惨,现在也轮到中国了哈哈哈)

译:我会和日本首相安倍晋三以及其他人谈谈,他是伟大的人,我的朋友,谈话时他们的脸上会有一丝微笑。微笑的意思是,“我不敢相信我们能如此长时间地利用美国。”这样的日子结束了。

Ambassador Lighthizer, thank you.

译:莱特希泽贸易代表,谢谢你。(你来说几句)

AMBASSADOR LIGHTHIZER:  Well,thank you very much,Mr. President.  First of all, for those of you who don’t know, Section 301 is a statute that gives substantial power, authority to the President to correctactions in certain circumstances where there’s unfair acts, policies, orpractices by our trading partners.

(现任贸易代表莱特希泽,一个强硬派,废话不多,直接说明301调查的含义。)

译:莱特希泽:总统先生,非常感谢。首先,对于那些不了解的人,301条款指的是一项法令,赋予总统很大权力和权力,在某些条件下对我们的贸易伙伴的不公平行为,政策或做法进行纠正。

In this case, the area is technology. Technology is probably the most important part of our economy. There’s 44 millionpeople who work in high-tech knowledge areas. No country has as much technology-intensive industry as the United States. And technology is really the backbone of the future of the American economy.

(揭晓答案,真正贸易战针对的是根本不是大宗商品,而是科技领域。因为中国的科技发展威胁到美国了。)

译:在本案中,相关领域就是技术。技术可能是我们经济中最重要的部分。我们有4400万人在高科技知识领域工作。没有哪个国家拥有与美国一样高度的技术密集型产业。技术真的是美国经济未来的中坚力量。

Given these problems, the President asked USTR to conduct astudy.We conducted a thorough study. We had hearings. We reviewed tens of thousands of pages of documents. We talked to many, many business people. We had testimony, as I say.

(针对中国知识产权和科技领域的301调查其实是去年8月就开始的,迄今半年过去了,是时候得出结论了。)

译:鉴于这些问题,总统请USTR(美国贸易代表处)进行一项研究。我们进行了彻底的研究。我们举行听证。我们审查了数万页的文件。我们和很多商业人士交谈过。正如我所说的,我们有证词。

And we concluded that, in fact,China does have a policy of forced technology transfer;of requiring licensing at less than economic value;of state capitalism,wherein they go in and buy technology in the United States in non-economic ways; and then, finally, of cyber theft.

(中国想在科技领域弯道超车,肯定得有些上不了台面的招数啊。否则美国人会将科技领先的位置拱手相让吗?至少我去一些重点实验室调研的时候,教授们也表示想走正规渠道从美国带回些仪器来简直是不可能的啊。)

译:我们的结论是,实际上中国确实有强制技术转让的政策;要求以低于经济价值的获得技术许可,奉行国家资本主义,他们以非经济的方式进入美国购买技术;最后是网络盗窃。

The result of this has been that the President has analyzed it —we have a 200-page study which we will put out — and he has concluded that we should put in place tariffs on appropriate products — we can explain later how we concluded what products they are; that we would put investment restrictionson China with respect to high technology; and that we’ll file a WTO case. Because one of the actions here does involve a WTO violation.

译:结果就是这样,总统已对此进行分析 - 我们有一个长达200页的研究报告,我们将公布 - 他已经得出结论,我们应该对适当的产品征收关税 - 我们可以在以后解释我们如何挑出这些产品;我们会在高科技方面对中国施加投资限制;并且我们将向WTO提交诉案,因为这里的一项行为确实涉及违反WTO规定。

(美国并没有完全放弃WTO,还有一个case会在WTO体系下去投诉中国。)

This is an extremely important action, very significant and very important for the future of the country, really, across industries. And I would really like to thank you very much, Mr. President, for giving me theopportunity to work on it.

(呵呵。最后拍老板一下马屁,感谢给工作啊。)

译:这是一个非常重要的行动,对于我国的未来意义重大非常重要,实际上,涵盖诸多行业。总统先生,我非常感谢你给我机会来开展工作。

THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you very much, Bob.  Secretary Ross.

译:特朗普:非常感谢你,鲍勃。罗斯部长,(你也来说两句)。

SECRETARY ROSS:  Intellectual property rights are our future, and it’s no accident that in June of this year, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office will issue its 10 millionth patent — 10 million patents. There’s no country in the history of the world that remotely approaches that.

(在科技领域更重要的是专利,是知识产权,这是美国目前的镇国之宝了。)

译:商务部长罗斯:知识产权是我们的未来,今年6月,美国专利商标局将发布第1000万件专利 - 1千万项专利,这并非偶然。世界历史上没有任何国家可以接近这一点。

So the steel and aluminum actions we’ve taken deal more or less with the present. This action on intellectual property rights deals with the future.So we’re trying to solve both today’s problem and problems that otherwise will be forthcoming.That’s why these actions are so important and so important in unison with each other.  We will end up negotiating these things, rather than fighting over them, in my view.

(再次揭露重点——钢铁和铝产品的关税是为了现在,而针对知识产权的贸易行动是为了未来。美国人很清楚如果让中国在科技领域迎头赶上,结果是什么。但最后一句也值得玩味——美国会和对手谈判协商这些事情,而不是fighting。)

译:所以我们采取的钢铁和铝材行动或多或少地与现状相关。这一知识产权行动涉及未来。所以我们试图解决今天的问题和即将出现的问题。这就是为什么这些行动如此重要,以及协调行动如此重要。在我看来,我们最终会谈判这些事情,而不是就此发生争斗。

THE PRESIDENT:  Mike Pence, would you like to saysomething?

特朗普:迈克-彭斯先生,你想说点什么吗?

THE VICE PRESIDENT:  Thank you, Mr. President, and to all our honored guests.  Today’s action sends a clear message that this President and our entire administration are determined to put American jobs and American workers first.

(呵呵。)

副总统彭斯:谢谢总统先生,并感谢我们所有的贵宾。今天的行动传达了一个明确的信息,即总统和我们整个政府决心把美国的就业机会和美国工人放在第一位。

The action the President will take today under Section 301 also makes it clear that the era of economic surrender is over.The United States of America is taking targeted and focused action to protect not only American jobs,but America’s technology, which will power and drive an innovation economy for decades to come.

(副总统也来强调一下重点,这次行动压根就不是为了就业,而是为了美国未来几十年的领先地位。

总统今天根据301条款采取的行动也表明,经济投降时代已结束。美国正在采取有针对性和集中的行动,不仅保护美国的就业机会,而且还保护未来几十年将推动创新经济发展的美国技术。

It is just one more step of a promise made and a promise kept by President Trump.

这只是特朗普总统做出承诺和兑现承诺的又一步。

THE PRESIDENT:  So we’ll sign right now. I just want to let everybody know, just for a second time,that we are in the midst of very major and very positive negotiations.Positive for the United States and,actually, very positive for other countries also.

(特朗普最后一次强调,现在和对手还在谈判中!而且是在一个非常有建设性的谈判中!

特朗普:所以我们现在就签署。我想让大家再次知道,我们正处于非常重要和非常积极的谈判之中。对美国是积极的,实际上对其他国家也是积极的。

We have some of our great business leaders — and leaders, period— right behind me. I may ask Marillyn — Lockheed — the leading woman’s business executive in this country, according to many.  And we buy billions and billions of dollars’ worth of that beautiful F-35.  It’s stealth.  You cannot see it.  Is that correct?

(Marillyn是洛克希德马丁——世界第一的武器制造商——的女老板。这个时候把她抬出来,无非是让美国人意识到中国在军事技术领域也可能会借助一些手段赶超美国,这样他们危机感会更强。)

我们拥有一些伟大的商界领袖 - 领导者,嗯 - 他们就在我身后。我可能会问玛丽琳-休森(Marillyn Hewson,美国军工巨头洛克希德马丁的CEO) - 许多人都认为她是这个国家最优秀的女性企业经理人之一。我们购买了价值数十亿美元的 F-35战机。它是隐身的,你看不到它。是那样吗?

MS. HEWSON:  That’s correct, Mr. President.

玛丽琳-休森:总统先生,是这样的。

THE PRESIDENT:  Better be correct.  Right?

特朗普:最好是正确的。对不对?

MS. HEWSON:  Absolutely.

玛丽琳-休森:总统先生,绝对如此。

THE PRESIDENT:  Marillyn, please say a few words.

特朗普:玛丽琳,请说几句话。

MS. HEWSON:  Well, thank you, Mr. President.  I would just say that this is a very important moment for our country, in that we are addressing what is a critical area for the aerospace and defense industry, and that is protecting our intellectual property.  As has been expressed, that is a threat to us if we have that stolen from our companies, because that is the lifeblood of our companies.

(让一个中国最不可能从非正常途径获得技术的行业作为代表,也是很讽刺了。)

玛丽琳-休森:谢谢,总统先生。我只想说,对于我们国家来说,这是一个非常重要的时刻,因为我们正在维护航空航天和国防工业的关键领域,是保护我们的知识产权。正如我们已经说过的那样,如果我们公司的知识产权被盗,这对我们是一个威胁,因为那是我们公司的生命线。

And so, we very much welcome this action on the part of the Trump administration and the President of the United States. Thank you.

所以,我们非常欢迎特朗普政府和美国总统采取这一行动。谢谢。

THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you, Marillyn.

特朗普:谢谢,玛丽琳。

This is the first of many. This is number one, but this is the first of many.

这是许多行动中的第一步。这是第一个行动,是许多行动的开始。

(The memorandum is signed.)

特朗普签署针对中国关税备忘录

Thank you all very much. Marillyn.  Thank you very much.

特朗普:谢谢,玛丽琳,非常感谢。

MS. HEWSON:  Thank you, Mr. President.

玛丽琳-休森:谢谢您,总统先生。

Q    Mr. President, would you still like to testify to the Special Counsel, Robert Mueller?

记者提问:总统先生,你依然准备(就通俄门事件)向特别检察官穆勒(Robert Mueller)提供证词吗?

THE PRESIDENT:  I would like to.  I would like to.

特朗普:我会的,我愿意呀。

END

全文完

12:58 P.M. EDT

OK。到这里全部看完了,结论也很清楚了,离贸易战开展还有最后15天。

最后强调几个重点:

第一,美国和中国正在谈判,此次签备忘录是一个重磅砝码。因为美国商务部还会有15天的时间去确定关税涉及的商品名单,现在还没有开始征收关税。

第二,科技和知识产权领域才是美国最重视的领域,制造业回流只是一个幌子,钢铁和铝制品的关税更是虚晃一枪。就像现在有的一些客观分析里说的,是中国现在在技术领域的飞速发展让美国产生了深深的戒备之心。九十年代那一轮的知识产权谈判最终带来了中国在文化领域的开放,那这一轮的谈判又会带来什么呢?

第三,静观未来15天的形势变化,不到最后一刻不要随便说贸易战已经开打了。至少中国商务部目前的反制措施完全是针对“钢铁和铝产品关税”这件事的(商务部网站上的标题是《商务部新闻发言人就中方发布针对美国进口钢铁和铝产品232措施的中止减让产品清单发表谈话》),根本没有提到昨晚白宫发生的事情,这背后是留了余地的。

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